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Apple Releases iTunes 8.2, Adds Support for iPhone 3.0

itunes8.2

Apple today released iTunes 8.2 via Software Update. This update adds support for iPhone 3.0 which is expected to be featured at Apple’s WWDC event next week and released very soon. Registered iPhone developers have had access to iTunes 8.2 since late April, when Apple released a new beta of iPhone software 3.0 which was not compatible with the current iTunes 8.1 release.

iTunes 8.2 now supports iPhone or iPod touch with the iPhone 3.0 Software Update. iTunes 8.2 also includes many accessibility improvements and bug fixes.

For information on the security content of this update, please visit this website: http://support.apple.com/kb/HT1222

Apple has also released a Quicktime update alongside the 8.2 release, which brings its version to 7.6.2 and adds several security and performance fixes.

It’s great to see Apple is ahead of the ball and preparing for a strong 3.0 release next week. The beta releases have gone smoothly, so I can’t imagine the final release doing any worse. Stay tuned for coverage of the WWDC event, 3.0 software features, and next generation iPhone information during next week!

*iTunes 8.2 is available here or via Software Update

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Ancient Rome’s Governmental and Political Authoritative Advances over Ancient China

May 9th, 2009 by

Ancient Rome’s Governmental and Political Authoritative

Advances over Ancient China

Austin Grade

Word Count: 1,596

History 101g

Professor Fischer-Bovet

23 November 2010

Ancient Rome and China are known to be two of the strongest civilizations in history. From their religion, culture, warfare, economies and technology, each empire has played a large role in providing the foundations and innovations of succeeding legacies. Government and political authorities played the largest role in constructing the Roman and Chinese empires ultimately allowing them to succeed over their conquered territory. The leaders and rulers that emerged from each civilization proceeded to excel and drive forward their followers to prosperity. Although both empires succeeded greatly, the Roman Empire ultimately flourished compared to the Chinese empire through its strategical advancements in the creation of a separated and balanced government and strong political authority.

The Roman Empire supported a fair balance within the governmental entity through the employment of three sovereign elements. These three branches of government consisted of the Senate, Consuls, and people, which allowed for the first execution of separating political powers. The senate held a small portion of legislative of power but decisions made within the body of government were forced to filter through this advisory council. The senate is not only fiscally responsible, but also must respect the decisions of the people and ultimately has no power without their support.1 The consul is the most powerful and has the strongest administrative support among all three foundations. Often known as the supreme masters, it is their duty to bring forth the foreign ambassadors, matters of deliberation or proposals to the senate and exercise the punishments upon vote of the majority.2 The consuls must take into notion the view of the public and respect of the senate, for their whole support and authority relies upon them. The third part of this

construction consists of the people and their role in monetary collections, constructions, and being the ultimate decisions in the passing of laws and court decisions with the senate and consul. As Shuckburg states, for the people are the “sole fountain of honor and punishment”3, thus giving the people the decision of outcome and laying much power within their hands. Due to the weighted supremacy within the people, the Roman’s governmental system portrays strong evidence of the first democratic system. This type of political unit and justice system was used as a method of curtailing the power of either political unit by relying on all entities to form a decision or change.

Chinese government featured a less intricate system than the Romans, in which they relied upon a single power of higher being. This power often fell into the hands of an emperor of China during his reign and was commonly referred to as a monarchy.  Shi Huangdi created the first Chinese empire around 220 BCE, which formed imperial China, including the short-lived Qin Dynasty, which later transformed into the Han Dynasty.4 The creation and ruling of these empires was largely different from the Roman Empire in that it was based on a dictatorship, rather than democratic characteristics. The dynasties employed autocratic kingship, military organization, centralized administration, and standardized legal codes5, which helped strengthen the empire as a whole, but definitive power resided in a common ruler giving a less organized administrative system. The downfall of this system was that government relied on ruling families and inherited dynasties for control over the empire, leaving almost no limits to their power. This form of ruling

exacerbated the absence of a proper court system, governmental body, and fair justice system leading to a skewed form of parallel structure.

Although the Chinese civilization revolutionized the imperial empire around 200 BCE, their advances in political systems had no comparison against the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire was the first civilization to employ the political expansion of their government to include a separation of powers in the form of a Senate, Consul, and people. This democratic form of government was much more prosperous in not only their empire, but also the creation of the Imperial empire and innovations for future advancements.  Political authority and control of these two empires assisted in furthering their success.

The Romans relied heavily on strong political authorities and prosperous warfare for the success of their empire. The conquering of nearby civilizations through warfare and eventually extending the empire over the entire Mediterranean area, primarily triggered Rome’s growth. The importance and honor of warfare can be seen on Trajan’s column in Rome, which depicts the connection between political authority and military victory for the Roman Empire. The carvings show men with swords and shields in the midst of war, leading to the significance that militarism acted in the expansion of the empire with several rulers. Julius Caesar and Augustus played the largest roles in creating and shaping the Roman Imperial Empire through their use of political and warfare tactics.

Julius Caesar’s reign over the Romans set the cornerstone of the evolution from a republic to an Empire, along with the reformation of the government and society. Caesar’s militaristic campaigns and the conquering of many battles also

assisted in shaping the Roman Empire and adding to its expansion. He spurred the start and victories over many wars, including Umbria, Picenum, Rubicon, Egypt and vast victory over Pompey.6 His creation of projects for betterment of the society included many tasks such as the creation of the temple of mars, libraries of Greek and Latin Books, and reducing the civil code.7 By leading the republic through many victories and civilized advancements, Caesar initiated the start of a new Roman Empire.

Augustus, also known as Octavian, used Caesar’s foundation to advance the empire as Rome’s first and influential emperor in 27 BC. He initiated many reforms that affected the government and political entities through the creation of his image of power. Augustus’ reformation included organization of the senate, rebuilding of the capital, theatre of Pompey, and many temples.8 He also succeeded in expanding the empire to govern those of Egpyt, Spain, Gaul, and many other surrounding areas.9 His accomplishments produced a successful Roman Empire for his time and fed as examples for the future to build on.

Political authorities had difficulty in creating a strong and centralized Chinese empire due to the changing of Dynasties. The Qin dynasty was focused mainly around the emperor having absolute power, which ultimately impeded on the advancement and success of their dynasty. Upon creation of the Han Dynasty and rulers Han Wudi, Wu Ti, and Wang Mang, the Chinese empire began to prosper in advancements throughout the government and civilization by taking leads from Confucianism.  The Han dynasty promoted the empire’s influence of expanding

across central Asia as well as increased cultural productivity.10  This included advancements within the government, court systems, military campaigns and an ever-growing economy. However, these rapid expansions and changing of dynasties and principles within the empire commonly led to a series of small downfalls. The empire continually saw these prosperous periods of advancement, but ultimately led to a stasis and downfall due to the changing of emperors and discontent among the citizens. After going through several periods of success and hope for the Chinese civilization, the Han Dynasty met its downfall due to the compounding of these issues around 220 CE.

The Roman’s integration of a series of strong political authorities and powerful army allowed themselves to create a very successful empire. The citizens also played a large role through their use of support of the leaders and monuments throughout the city supporting war and expansion. Caesar and Augustus turned the empire around by promoting new governmental techniques, prosperous warfare and expansion, and the reformation of many civilization landmarks. The Chinese saw several political authorities that assisted in progressing their empire. Although warfare was not an important aspect, the emperors led through Confucianism leading to bursts of major expansion in Asia and improvements to the government. However, the changing of dynasties hindered the expansions as the emperors pushed for different advancements during each period, leading to their ultimate downfall.

The Roman and Chinese empires both exhibited vast amount of growth during the Imperial era. Governmental reforms and strong political authorities paved the way for centuries of prosperous outcomes in each empire at varying degree. The Roman’s creation of a three-sovereign governmental system of a senate, consul, and people, allowed the employment of a democratic form of government. This led to equalization within the courts, fairness among civilization, and rested a large majority in the people’s hands by requiring their responses on changes. The Roman’s organized authoritative system showed to be a much more successful structure than the Chinese governed through a monarchy. Ruling by a single power and dynasties without the creation of a proper court or balanced government system, the Chinese Empire limited it’s growth and expansion greatly. Caesar and Augustus brought countless improvements upon the Roman Empire through militaristic victories, expansion, rebuilding of historical landmarks, and ultimately transforming the Roman republic into a successful empire.  The Chinese also experienced an increase of expansion and advances within their empire through the leadership at the turn of the Imperial era. Although the Qin and Han dynasties saw many emperors with differing visions, the empire exhibited many progressions in the economy, government and other social expansions until their final downfall. Rome’s use of a resilient centralized government and political authorities allowed them to succeed as one of the strongest empires during the Imperial era and forming foundations that many future systems came to rely on.

Bibliography

Augustus. The Deeds of the Divine Augustus.1423.

“Polybius: The Constituion of the Roman Republic.” In Part IV: The Roman Republic. 235.

Suetonius. In Life of Julius Caesar. 49.

“Establishing an Imperial Confucian Academy: Sima Qian.” In The Ancient World. 146.

Wiesner, M.E. “Han and Rome: Asserting Imperial Authority.” In Discovering the Global Past. 2001. 78.

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Dugesia dorotocephala Regeneration Proficiency in Acidic and Neutral Solutions

1. INTRODUCTION

Dugesia dorotocephala are members of the phylum Platyhelminthes and are commonly referred to as planaria or flatworms. Planaria have variations of the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm as well as the absence of organ containing cavities, called coelom, giving them a solid body (Hyman 1951). The presence of three germ layers, also known as triploblastic, leads to the production of organs and tissues within the planaria. Photoreceptors assist in helping the planaria move away from light, as well as sensory organs allowing for taxis to specific detections. Sexual reproduction is limited to cross-fertilization through hermaphroditism by switching sexes, and asexually through transverse binary and fission (Hyman 1951), the latter being the most important element of planaria. Planaria regeneration is highly important in understanding the process of cell proliferation and using the data for future advances and a greater understanding of cell regeneration.

D. dorotocephala are very unique by their ability to regenerate body parts by cell regrowth to restore their original conditions. The planaria can be split bilaterally, decapitated, or bisected, and each half will regenerate into two individual organisms (Figure 1). Upon trauma in the planaria, mitosis creates cell proliferation at the wound and leads towards the construction of  epithelial and mesenchymal, or blastema, and creates epimorphic regeneration. (Sánchez, Alvarado, & Newmark 1998). The blastema formation provides the basis of regeneration while relying on morphallaxis to restore the symmetry of the planaria.

In this experiment, the regeneration of D. dorotocephala in varying pH solutions will be observed in order to determine if regeneration is more successful in higher or lower pH solutions. By performing this experiment on planaria, it allows for a more advanced understanding in the process of cell proliferation and regeneration in general and for future discoveries. The higher pH solution of 7.5 will have the most successful rate of full regeneration in the planaria by giving the planaria a fairly neutral solution to perform their living systems. Partial head individuals will show the strongest and complete forms of regeneration of their tail counterpart, with tail individuals having long regeneration times and less likely chance of completion due to the complexity of the regenerating head.

Figure 1. A) Depicts a whole planarian with lines presenting each type of cut that can be performed. B) Planaria bisected, giving two individual organisms for regrowth. C) Planaria head with partial regeneration of a tail. D) Planaria tail with partial regeneration of a head.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

Three agar plates contain the samples of 4 planaria with one per divided section (Figure 2). Three planaria were bisected in half (Figure 1B) and the fourth was left intact as our control, leaving a total of 6 regeneration samples and a total of 4 replicates for each treatment overall. After the planaria had been cut and all water was removed from the agar plate via pipette,  each section received 3-4mL of three pH solutions. Agar plates 1-3 received pH solutions of 5.5, 6.5, and 7.5 respectively.  The samples were then incubated at 20°C for 7 days and removed for observation. During observation, the pH solutions were removed from each sample and replaced with identical pH solutions of 5.5, 6.5, and 7.5.  Planaria were placed back into their sections if they moved and results were recorded as well as any errors or deaths. After incubating at 20°C for 7 more days, the plates were removed and observed to determine the effectiveness each pH solutions had on regeneration. Each pH sample was looked at under the dissecting microscope in order to observe and record partial or full regeneration along with any deaths and errors.

Figure 2. Agar plate sample preparation with four planaria in each section. Three will be cut an observed, with one as the control group all in the same pH solution.

3. RESULTS

After examining the results on the D. dorotocephala regeneration samples, it was discovered that each pH solution had varying effectiveness in assisting in the regeneration of Planaria. In Group 1, the sample with a pH of 5.5 contained 6 partially regenerated Planaria, pH 6.5 had 5 partial planaria, and pH 7.5 sample had 6 partial planaria left over. The sample of pH 6.5 had one death thus leading to only 5 out of 6 planaria being partially regenerated. The combined average results of all samples within the lab saw 21/24 partial and 3/24 full regenerations in the pH 5.5 solution; 19/24 partial and 3/24 full regenerations in the pH 6.5 solution; and 20/24 partial and 4/24 full regenerations in the pH 7.5 solution (Figure 3). Figure 2 and Figure 4 depict the black planaria before and after regeneration. Overall, the pH 5.5 solution saw the largest partial regeneration at 87% and the pH 7.5 solution saw the greatest full regeneration at 17% (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Average results in percentage reflecting partial and full regeneration v. pH of the solution at 25°C,

4. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

After completing this experiment it was found that the hypothesis was supported and regeneration of D. dorotocephala is optimal in a solution of pH 7.5 (Figure 3). The plates containing the solutions of pH 5.5 and 6.5 showed similar results of partial and full regeneration, with differing numbers due to two deaths in the pH of 6.5 solution (Figure 3). Given that there were no deaths in the entire pH 5.5 solution and the 6.5 control, the deaths must have resulted from another cause. It can be assumed that the lower pH does not affect the lives of the planaria short-term, but may have larger effects on the planaria longer-term or with a more acidic solution. With almost 20% full regeneration and 83% partial regeneration in the 7.5 solution, it can be concluded that D. dorotocephala favors neutral solutions over the slightly more acidic solutions for regeneration.

Regeneration from an individual head or individual tail also varied. From the 6 samples in each plate, the 3 head organisms experienced the largest amount of growth and completeness of full regeneration of a tail compared to the tail regeneration of a head. A planaria head from the pH 7.5 sample and a planaria tail from the pH 6.5 sample were compared and the pH 7.5 head experienced much larger amounts of tail growth being almost to completion, where as the pH 6.5 tail had much more head growth to go (Figure 4). Several articles support these findings with similar experiments done through the use of Planaria and head vs. tail regeneration. Mechanisms that determine the anterior from posterior and the replacement of the specific body parts are unknown (Gurley, Rink, & Alvarado 2008), but the use of RNA interference enables manipulation of these genes. These three individuals investigated the effect that ß-catenin has on the effects of regeneration a head or tail. In their experiment the RNA interference of ß-catenin results in the regeneration of a tail at anterior wounds, thus specifying ß-catenin as a molecular switch during regeneration that controls the presence of either a head or tail (Gurley, Rink, & Alvarado 2008). It was concluded that the head pieces were more successful in regenerating a tail than the tail pieces could regenerate a head. These findings support our observance of regeneration in D. dorotocephala, and help us understand the action of homeotic genes and how these genes can be altered to produce and generate varying body structures in other organisms.

Figure 4. A) Planaria head regenerating a tail in pH 7.5 at 25°C B) Planaria tail regenerating a head in pH 6.5 at 25°C

Time restraints and pH range also put a limitations on this experiment. Had the samples been available for observation over a longer period than two weeks, the data would have been much more precise in accounting for the complete and partial planaria. The pH range of the solutions was also fairly limited in this experiment from only 5.5 to 7.5. By testing the planaria regeneration at higher or lower ranges of pH solutions, the data would have been much more diverse and would portray the environments that planaria could not regenerate in or even survive in. Future experiments could include a much larger data sample at higher and lower pHs and also the integration of temperature and other variables to gain a better understanding of the absolute conditions that cell regeneration is most proficient.

By performing these experiments at varying conditions, it allows for discovery and advances in cell regeneration. Studying planaria and their methods of cell proliferation through blastema and morphallaxis assists in future medical advances.  Regeneration in not only planaria but also other organisms and animals is an amazing feat that can help us understand stem cell transplants and the formation of cell regeneration to eventually be used in humans.

REFERENCES

Gurley, K., Rink, J., & Alvarado, A. (2008). ß-Catenin Defines Head Versus Tail Identity During Planaria Regeneration and Homeostasis. Science, 319(5861), 323-327.

Hyman LH. (1951). The Invertebrates: Platy- helminthes and Rhynchocoela the acoelo- mate bilateia. McGraw-Hill. 2, 22;41

Sánchez Alvarado A, Newmark PA. (1998). The use of planaria to dissect the molecular ba- sis of metazoan regeneration. Wound Rep. Regen. 6, 415.

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iPhone 3.0 Beta 5 Available to Developers

May 6th, 2009 by

SDK
Just a week and a day later from the release of Beta 4, Apple has seeded iPhone 3.0 Beta 5. Contrary to Beta 2 and Beta 3 following a schedule and being released every other Tuesday, perhaps Apple had urgent fixes to be released, preparation for WWDC, or maybe the previous releases just so happened to fall in schedule. With rumors of the 10.5.7 OS X update dropping this friday, they may have released Beta 5 for compatibility updates.

Make sure you head over to the dev site and download it at http://developer.apple.com/iphone/

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iPhone 3.0: Swipe to Delete Contact Info

contact-swipe-to-delete

In addition to many other features in iPhone 3.0 beta, the ability to delete individual contact info fields is now available. This works for phone numbers, fax numbers, webpages, and other data fields. Start by going to your Contacts, choose a name, and swipe one of the fields to bring up the red delete button that is known throughout all other apps since the 1.x firmware.

Being able to delete single contact info makes it much easier to remove and/or update information on the fly. Hopefully we can see this type of quick deletion in other apps to come.

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